luft@chemist.com; +48 44 307 07 33   plen

General thoughts

1. Ozone generators to ozonate air producing ozone from air

Application: deodorization, disinfection, mite air and objects in contact with air.

Ozone is produced by corona discharge lamp of our own construction and production. It is the heart of the apparatus powered by the voltage converter. Tension of the power is several thousand volts and frequency is several thousand Hertz. Wires supplying electricity to the lamp are a high-voltage cables coated in silicone. The converter is powered by 12 V DC through the switching power supply, stabilized, the highest quality one. It is powered by alternating current, single-phase 230V from the standard network with a grounding pin. The movement of air around the corona discharge lamp is forced by fan/fans force powered by current 12 VDC or 230 VAC, depending on the structure and needs. The tension of the power has no impact on its/their performance. Each fan, inverter, power supply are tested before work on the motherboard according to the principle that the devices usually fail at start. But also all assembled equipment is subjected to tests. Then the equipment is tuned due to the fact that induced electromagnetic fields are a subcject of interference and each device requires a separate tuning. Such equipment is subjected to annealing for 3 days, it is sealed with outer seal, visible to the customer and internal – invisible. Each unit has a nameplate with the serial number and date of manufacture. VAT is 23% and there is no possibility to not charge it. Waiting period for the execution of contract is up to two weeks. In especially complicated orders it can be extended to a month. I recall here that each generator is built to individual order and, therefore, similar generators (with the same performance) may vary. The important thing – warranty. Four year warranty does not include fans. Shipment of the product in order to complaint charges the client. Repaired generator is send back at company expense. Breaking the seals results in loss of warranty and feasibility warranty service. Our company being confident of the quality of apparatus provides  (upon request) lifetime warranty. The condition of duration is annual payable neecessity of servicing. Shipment is covered by the customer. Ozone generators are maintenance-free and designed for continuous work indoors. Do not use generators in smoky, exhausted and saturated with high concentrations of hydrocarbons places. Even presence of tobacco smoke is hostile to the work and life of generators. Generators can operate in the temperature range from 4 to 40°C and humidity not higher than 65%. Use of generators out of these ranges leads to failure, and results in clients loss of warranty (when it is to determine during the repair). I mention that such repair is expensive, damage includes lamp or lamps producing ozone. Dust filters used in device are accessible from the outside and they must be systematically beat or gently washed. In an extreme case of clogged filter/filterss apparatus must be sent to our company. Cost of service estimates between 100 – 200 zł. “Korona” Laboratory has no legal personality and its representative in commercial matters is our company: Civil Engineering Company “Ekotech” from Piotrkow Trybunalski (data in tabs “contact” and “distributors”).

2. Ozone generators for liquid ozonation or application of ozone in places distant from the generator.

Application: professional deodorization, disinfection and mite ventilation, air-conditioners, shafts chute, ozonation of water (pools, ponds, meres, water for disinfection in situ in meat processing plants, fish processing plants, preservation of fruit etc.), ozonation of solutions eg. pesticides for disposal, ozonation of sewage, ozonation of olive oil (peanut, sesame), wounds healing (diabetic foot), veterinary medicine, cosmetology, cosmetic industry, perfume indistry, soap etc, scientific research.

The principle of operation is the same as the ozone generators producing ozone from ambient air. It is applied to the same technology. Main difference is that the corona discharge lamps are tightly integrated in the pipe that withstands 2 at the spigot. It is made of polycarbonate, glass or high-impact polymethyl methacrylate – depending on the needs. Equipped with spigots supplying construction with the gas to produce ozone and receive ozone from the opposite side. The generator can be powered by compressed air, oxygen form concentrator or pure oxygen from a cylinder. Ozonation of water can be carried out with help of air. Olive subjected to ozonation requires oxygen concentrator or cylinder. To obtain the compressed air you can use an ordinary pump air into the aeration ponds. Our company provides professional compressors (see tab “accessories”), produced by the renowned Japanese and are expensive ones. In return we offer reliability, two-year warranty, maintenance-free filter, pre -filter and an innovative solution to the problem of compression – it is not a diaphragm pump but the device with a rotating piston; it does not require lubrication. Through one lamp 20 l of air or other gas mixed with oxygen can be pressed for one minute. This is maximum volume.  Exceeding it causes loss of lamp efficiency which results in decrease in the concentration of ozone in outlet gas. In the event of reinforcing generator with oxygen from concentrator or tank things are the same. And the most important thing! Do not run the generator without the prior inclusion of the inflow of gas! Lamp is cooled mainly with gas flowing through it. It will last without any failure only for 10 minutes. In order to ozonate liquid ozone outlet spigot is connecting to the diffuser. Flow of gas should be set is such way that bubbles of ozone will not cling together in a stream. It is free bubbling in contrast to the undesirable – chain one. Ozonation of ventilation and air conditioners requires connecting with outlet spigot tube to revise the system. Air from compressor, mixture or pure oxygen can be used to power the generator. Economics, however, speaks for compressed air. Since ozone produced by corona discharges is relatively expensive, it is important to create such conditions for dissolving the reagent in water that produced amount will be efficiently used. Therefore, enormous care should be taken to understand the process of transfer of ozone into the aqueous phase and its reaction with the substances dissolved in the water; our website contains extensive scientific literature on the ozonation of water. Process of dissolving ozone in the water is described by Henry’s isotherm. The amount of ozone dissolved in the water depends on the pressure of the gas phase, content of ozone, but also the temperature and pH of the water. Ozone breaks spontaneously in water and velocity of disintegration depens on pH and temperature.
The solubility of ozone in water is relatively high when compared to the solubility of oxygen or nitrogen.
The use of ozone for water treatment is tradition well known for centuries. First industrial installation for water ozonation was installed in the Netherlands in 1893, after which the number of such facilities increased rapidly until the First World War, when inexpensive method for obtaining chlorine gas were developed. Cheap chlorine somehow stopped the development of disinfection with ozone and after the Second World War there has been a return to ozone. Ozone in water treatment technology is used to:

  • improve organoleptic properties of water (color, taste)
  • – remove bacteria and viruses,
  • oxidize natural organic matter,
  • oxidize microfouling,
  • – oxidize some of metals (Fe, Mn),
  • increase the biodegradability of organic matter before filtration through a biologically active carbon filters.

Our company provides professional diffusers (see “equipment”) for ozone treatment of water, oil and other liquids. Diffuser is adjusted individually to the needs of the job. The half-life of ozone in water is about 30 minutes. Ozonated olive oilozone to appropriate limit maintains its healing properties for 12 months. We produce ozonated olive oil.

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Influence of pH on ozone concentration in 15°C
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Conclusion: cold water with a neutral pH is best for ozone. Two more points: the higher the concentration of ozone – the longer half-life and the greater the concentration of ozone the slower dissapearance of ozone.
Practical half-life of ozone, as mentioned in water at 20°C and pH 7, is about 30 minutes. As usual except given parameters possible to enter into equation also matters: 
geometry of the vessel, inequality of walls, presence of hard radiation, pollution present in the water (very important). So if we want to use ozonated water we have to produce it on regular basis. Bubblers should be made of sintered glass, chrome or stainless steel. You can use specially manufactured for this purpose (ozone resistant) mats. Ozonating with an orifice is used in large industrial installations. Determining parameters of the feed gas and leaving the generator is necessary. It is required by the construction of the orifice. Our company provides professional venturi (orificers) and offers paid cience and technology support for such facilities.

 

3. Ozone destructors.

They consist of a high-performance fan 230 VAC,  filter of activated carbon bed, active zinc with additives and UV lamp destroying residual ozone with appropriately selected wavelength of light. Such system is protected by a fuse, has a timer and 2 LEDs. System is built into the housing made of acid-resistand steel sheet. The filter cartridge should be used for about 500 hours and the lamp has a life of 1,000 hours. So after about 500 hours of operation you have to send them to us for replacement of the filter which costs 250zł. Our company produces only one kind of destructor. Need to destruction of larger amounts of ozone at the same time is the need to purchase suitable amount of destructors. Same things are if we want to shorten the time of destruction process.

 

4. Safety issues.

Ozone is one of the most effective known disinfectants. The bactericidal activity is shown in a concentration of approx. 13μg/dm3. Bactericidal effect of ozone is about 50 times stronger and 3,000 times faster than chlorine.  Ozone is an irritant gas causing damage to biological membranes by radical reactions of their constituents. After getting into the cells can inhibit the action of cellular enzymes, halting cellular respiration. The first signs of ozone irritation (seen at concentrations 0,2μg/dm3) are cough, sore throat, drowsiness and headaches. Avoid staying in a room subjected to ozonation. The man has a built-in warning him against the threat. Ozonated rooms must be cleared of animals and plants covered tight with pvc foil. Ozone in concentration obtained from generators does not discolour plastics and organic materials and does not destroy pictures (glaze), books etc.

Ozone has  short half-life, about 30 minutes, so after 2 hours it is only about 6% of the original concentration. Room should be ventilated after ozonation and you should masks with charcoal fillings if there is necessity to stay in ozonating areas.  The concentration of 0.1 ppm is harmless to human during maximum eight-hour exposure. However the concentration of 10 ppm is dangerous during few minutes exposure. “Korona” generators are capable of achieving up to 5 ppm. Of course, the use of several generators of high performance in a small and tight cubic capacity may raise the concentration. This will be poisonous and deadly atmosphere.

That is why professional use generators really is a work for professionals.

Current regulations do not require to be trained in the use of ozone. However, for security reasons, each person who wants to professionally use “Korona” generators should turn to our company for training or become familiar with the relevant literature. Once again I would like to mention that such training is not mandatory.

All our devices fulfill the requirements and regulations (declaration of conformity can be found on our website) of European Union.  They have required in-class protection against electric shock, overvoltage and overload. However a condition of safe use of electrical appliances is handling them skilfully. Please follow the instructions placed in user manual on our website. Professional ozonation is a job for professionals. Generators of expenditure exceeding 5 grams per hour of work can be dangerous. Anyone can buy from us every kind of generator like anyone can buy any amount of alcohol! I warn decidedly inexperienced persons from using high power generators. Ozone is a poisonous gas. First of all please ask questions if something is unclear or questionable.

 

Description

Ozone concentration in air (ppm)

Ozone concentration in air (mg/m3)

Allowable concentration at the workplace

(8 h)

0.05 – 0.1

0.1 – 0.2

Palpability of smell – average

0.02

0.04

Concentration causing irritation to the eyes, throat, nose, headache, acceleration and shortness of breath

0.1

0.2

Respiratory disorders, pain in the lungs, dry cough, fatigue

1.0

2.14

Pneumonia with prolonged exposure, drowsiness

1.0 – 10.0

2.14 – 21.4

Danger to human health

10.0

21.4

Lethal concentration for small animals within 2 hours

15.0 – 20.0

32.1 – 42.8

Lethal concentration for a man in a few minutes

powyżej 1700

powyżej 3638

Based on the available, recent literature in the “Korona” Laboratory; www.koronaozon.pl

© Ph. D. Andrzej Luft

2008

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